Saturday, March 14, 2020

The chemical history of the candle essays

The chemical history of the candle essays After reading this novel I found out that Michael Faraday conducted many experiments that I read in my eighth grade science books. Faraday pioneered many scientific facts that are known and still used today. Thanks to Faraday many scientist can do more advanced experiments due to the fact that he paved the way for them. Michael Faraday (1791-1867) is still until this day considered probably the greatest experimental scientist of all time. He took huge risk in his experiments and still had enough faith in his work to continue. One of the many conclusions that are stated in The Chemical History of a Candle is that in order for or a flame to continue burning or combustion air is necessary. Faraday found this out when he put a burning candle inside a jar and noticed that the flame began to dim and finally died out because all of the air had been consumed, and the combustion couldnt continue without the lack of air. Faraday also found out that combustion creates carbon monoxide after it burns off of oxygen. Michael Faraday was also the first scientist to discover that water can be turned into vapor. To find this out he filled an empty flask with water and heated the vessel. After a few minutes of observation he noticed that steam started to exit the flask. Then he poured cold water on the flask and it collapsed and the steam turned back into water. This very experiment is still carried out today on various science fair projects. The flask after being heated is very delicate and therefore collapses easily when the cold water is applied. These are two of the many experiments that Faraday preformed that helped him become extremely famous. These experiments may not seem that fascinating now, but being that he preformed these two-hundred years ago when there werent many guarantees that a fatal chemical reaction wouldnt take place, these were extremely risky risk. I personally think that if I was in Mic...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

General Kantian Perspective on Punishment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

General Kantian Perspective on Punishment - Essay Example In this theory, punishment is not justified by any good results but by the guilt of the criminal and therefore, a criminal must pay for their misdoings in a way that is proportional to the harm inflicted by their wrongdoing. This was very common in many traditions and it is clearly seen in the Jewish tradition in the Bible specifically in the Law of Moses. In the event that a person is tried and found guilty and punishable of a crime, the individual automatically forfeits or suspends an equal value of his or her right to something. Kant contends that the punishment must fit the crime committed and argues that a crime committed to another person is a crime perpetrated to one self. He contends that the most appropriate punishment for a murderer is capital punishment (execution). If a person who has committed a murder is allowed to live, justice is not done and this exemplifies a subversion of justice and the very essence of humanity in the world. Punishment of an equal measure is in al l ways justified by the criminal act of the criminal, this is the right of retaliation and punishment in the mode of ‘like for like’. Retributive justice often faces a lot of criticism especially from human rights activists who say that it is a violation of the natural rights of the offender. Natural rights are the basic and fundamental rights to all human beings by virtue of being creatures of nature; these are the rights that every human being is born with and cannot be taken away by anyone or any government or society. These rights protect us against the deprivations that can be imposed by the interests of others on us. Chief among natural rights is the right to life and the right to own property. Other natural rights include the freedom of worship, right to participate in government and politics, and the freedom of expression. Natural rights are based on the assumption that human beings are naturally rational and good and thus enjoy certain rights that are absolute at all levels or stages of the human life. Punishment should not violate the natural rights that individuals are entitled to because this would cause more harm than good, â€Å"we ought not to impose such harm on anyone unless we have a very good reason for doing so† (Golash 1). In retributive justice, the punishment in most cases is seen to override and violate the natural rights of the culprits/offenders. It is seen to be very punitive and does no good to the society. Retributive punishment is in no way tied to the impact it might have on the society but in the punishment of the offender in a manner that is commensurate to the crime committed (Rosen 7). The only fit or rather reasonable punishment for a person who has killed another person is that he should die; therefore, in taking away another man’s life, which the offender cannot reinstate, he or she forfeits or suspends his/her natural right to life, this is the right punishment for like with like. Justice should never at any time be exercised for the encouraging another good either regarding to the unlawful or the society. Justice is administered because an individual has committed a crime and is solely responsible for his actions and should be subjected to a punishment of an equal measure to the crime committed. Matters of justice are therefore not in any way contingent with the natural rights of a guilty individual. According to the maxim of the Pharisees, it is better that one man is put to death than that all people should perish; in this regard if righteousness and justice perish then human life loses its value dignity and essence in the world. The idea of keeping a man who has been condemned to death alive is therefore a

Monday, February 10, 2020

Team resource management in aviation industry Essay - 1

Team resource management in aviation industry - Essay Example nce, to combat that crucial situation, the industry has ventured into various concepts such as Cockpit Resource Management (CRM), Crew Resource Management (CRM) and now Team Resource Management (TRM) to enhance the safety of the aircraft and the passengers. Therefore, this project study, Team Resource Management in the Aviation Industry is proposed to identify challenges and constraints in TRM after analysing its various elements. In the aviation industry, teamwork is one of the vital factors in sustaining and enhancing the safety and effectiveness in Air travel. After the success of CRM in aviation over the past decades, TRM has emerged as an improved version for managing the available resources for the operating personnel including pilots, Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs) and crew members. The study analyses the elements of the TRM concepts in aviation management. The study will also look at TRM training and its most important factors. The significance of TRM in flight management as well as its effectiveness on the flight crew members to provide safety and be less error prone will be identified. Common problems in flight management will be unveiled in the study as well as solutions to identified problems. Various air accidents and incidents will be quoted and discussed to make the focus very candid. Since TRM is considered one of the best strategies, all available resources are utilised to the optimum level c arefully and properly to accomplish the safety of the aircraft and the passengers Team Resource Management (TRM) is a  set of training procedures and techniques for use in environments where human error can have devastating effects. Used primarily for improving air safety, TRM focuses on interpersonal communication, leadership and decision making in the cockpit, in addition to other elements of human factors (SkyBrary). According to the Irish Aviation Authority, TRM is a philosophy, which helps to realise that human beings are error prone.It not only helps

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Benefits of the European Union Essay Example for Free

Benefits of the European Union Essay The European Union is an organization of democratic European countries based on the idea of committing to working together for peace and prosperity. In the recent years the Union is considered to be one of the most strongest and most influential organisation in the world. Therefore all questions related to this are become questions with significant matter. In this essay I shall be firstly define my academic subject with presenting a short rà ©sumà © of the history of the European Union followed by an explanation of its main benefits and why they are so important. In order to support my arguments I shall use reliable sources and materials, whose authors are regarded as trustworthy on the European Union issues. In my conclusion I’ll summarise the main advantages of the European union and I’ll explain why every one of us should be interested in this subject. Identifing   myself as a part of the Union and conduct from the heart of the european idea,I shall strongly backing my position that the European Union is the only future for Europe. The European Union is a unique legal system which, following the most recent expansion of 1st January 2007, comprises almost 489 million people within 27 States with diverse legal traditions. Any further enlargements would bring the EU’s population to over half a billion people, (more than the USA and Japan combined). The main idea of creating an integrated Union was conceived before 50 years as a way to prevent destruction and to maintain peace within Europe.   The general aim of the European Union is an economic and political progress and to realize a common foreign and security policy, to stabilize the protection of the rights and interests of the member states, and to develop close cooperation on justice and home affairs (Politics in the EU, p.90). All European Union decisions and procedures are based on the Treaties, which are agreed by all the EU countries. This is one of the main democratic characteristics on the Union. The core of the Union, which is the single market, consists the main benefits and advantages that European Union can offer to its citizen. From 1 January 1993 the European Community formally became a Single Market without internal frontiers. What does this actually means? This means that people, goods, services and capital will be able to move around as freely as within one country. (EU Law 2006, p.369).   Its creation was one of the main objectives of the original Rome of Treaty (1957). These four freedoms of movement are underpinned by a range of supporting policies and they are the engine of the single market. Consequently many standards have been harmonized for hundreds of products, producing a level playing field for manufacturers across the EU, regardless of where they are based.  Moreover the process of harmonization of goods produced in one country of the Single Market by all the others means that if this product is high quality to be sold in one member state, it cannot be excluded from sale in another.   The overall effect has been to turn the EU into a huge â€Å"domestic† market for all citizens.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Are Safe-Haven Laws A Good Idea? Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive Pap

Are Safe-Haven Laws A Good Idea? Debi Faris recently made the sad drive, again, from her home in Yucaipa, California, to the Los Angeles County coroner's office to retrieve the body of a baby boy who had been left by a dumpster. Ms. Faris, her husband, Mark, and others laid baby Jacob (who was named by the police officer who found the child) to rest in the Garden of Angels, a small portion of a local cemetery the Farises established for abandoned infants in 1996. With the help of donations, they bought 44 plots four years ago. Baby Jacob was the 45th abandoned child buried there, forcing them to look for new space among the tombstones. "I never thought in our lifetimes we'd use them all," said Debi Faris. Due to the increasing numbers each year of abandoned babies in our country, law makers are starting to pass laws designed to protect abandoned babies. According to a survey of media reports conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 65 newborns were abandoned in public places in 1991, and that number rose to 108 by 1998. Experts can't explain why the number of abandoned babies is increasing, the only thing they see is that these people leaving their babies appear to be desperate and totally ignorant of what could be done for their babies. Babies are found alive, and sometimes dead in dumpsters, parking lots, woods, and rivers. In 1999, Houston, which leads the country in this phenomenon, reported 13 incidents in a 10-month period. Three of the babies were found dead. Many states have enacted or are actively considering new "safe-haven" laws to prevent such tragic abandonments. These laws allow a woman to leave her baby at a hospital, medical clinic, police or fire station anonymously, mostly with no... ... In the next year after the law going into effect, 33 babies were abandoned in Texas, most at hospitals, while 14 were left in dangerous situations. This year the number remains the about the same, but there were five cases reported in which women bore children elsewhere and then dropped them off at a hospital or firehouse. Three of those women said they had been prompted to do so by the law. I feel that these abandoned baby laws should be passed by every state. Saving just one more baby's life is all that matters. We shouldn't let babies continue to be thrown in dumpsters because people are worried about them not having medical backgrounds. The value of a baby's life is so much greater than the concerns arisen over the laws. The laws are well intentioned, and are the best way to help babies that are destined to be abandoned whether there are safe-havens or not.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Current competitive strategies of Samsung and Apple Essay

            Both Samsung and Apple are the largest manufacturers of smart phones in the world. Combined, the two technology giants’ account for more than half of the Smartphones sold world wide. Traditional cell phones had very limited computing abilities. Many of them were designed to offer basic services like making and receiving calls. As time went by, the need for mobile devices with superior computing abilities increased as technology became a major part of modern life. More importantly, there was demand for mobile phones that could offer the same services as a computer. Although the mobile phone market was traditionally ruled by companies like Nokia and Motorola, Apple took over the market when it launched its iPhone Smartphone in 2007. This product became very popular with customers due to its large touchscreen and multi-touch user interface. Even though the company dominated the Smartphone market for some time, it has come under increasing competition from Samsung through its Samsung galaxy product line (Apple, 2013). Through massive advertising coupled with unique features, the Samsung galaxy has overtaken the iPhone to become the most popular Smartphone brand in the world. This fierce competition between these two technology giants has resulted in endless court battles in the United States and Europe, among other places. This paper will look at the current competitive strategies used by each company and what each of them needs to do to improve their competitive position in the future. More importantly, there was demand for mobile phones that could offer the same services as a computer. Although the mobile phone market was traditionally ruled by companies like Nokia and Motorola, Apple took over the market when it launched its iPhone Smartphone in 2007. This product became very popular with customers due to its large touchscreen and multi-touch user interface. Even though the company dominated the Smartphone market for some time, it has come under increasing competition from Samsung through its Samsung galaxy product line (Apple, 2013). Through massive advertising coupled with unique features, the Samsung galaxy has overtaken the iPhone to become the most popular Smartphone brand in the world. This fierce competition between these two technology giants has resulted in endless court battles in the United States and Europe, among other places. This paper will look at the current competitive strategies used by each company and what each of them needs to do to improve their competitive position in the future. The current competitive strategy of each company            On top of being bitter competitors in the Smartphone market, Apple and Samsung use different competitive strategies. As the pioneer producer of Smartphones, Apple uses the blue ocean strategy. In the early 2000s, the cell phone market was mainly made of phones with basic applications. This meant that companies assessed what their competitors were doing and strived to improve on it so that they could gain a competitive strategy. Such a strategy was not good for business because it meant trading off cost and value (Mourdoukoutas, 2012). However, Apple decided to create a new demand in a market that no any other company ventured into. This was done through the use of the blue ocean strategy. As noted above, there was no any other company that was producing Smartphones at that time Apple was in total control of the Smartphone market. Within a short time, Apple became one of the most profitable companies in the United States and the world at large (Gustin, 2012). However, Steve Jobs and other senior managers at the company were well aware of the fact that the company was under threat of new entrant due to its profitability. This strategy made the company immune from the porter’s five forces. The main competitive strategy of Apple Inc is developing new and innovative products that blend technology and art.            Unlike Apple Inc, Samsung uses the red ocean strategy. In this type of strategy, a company gains competitive advantage by venturing into an existing market and building on the weaknesses of its competitors. As noted above, Apple was the pioneer company in the manufacture of Smartphones. Through its flagship iPhone product line, Apple rose to become the largest cell phone company in the world. Unlike Apple, the main competitive strategy of Samsung is flooding the market with many products that are developed within a short time. This is very different with Apple which takes a lot of time before it launches a new product into the market. This strategy has been made possible by the fact that Samsung develops many of the components that are used in making its Smartphones. This gives it a huge cost advantage over Apple which relies on external suppliers. However, the red ocean is disadvantageous because it makes a company vulnerable to the porter’s five forces. What each company is doing to improve its current competitive position               There are a number of steps that both Samsung and Apple are taking to improve their current competitive strategies. As noted earlier, Apple Inc dominated the Smartphone market for many years before it was eventually overtaken by Samsung. The loss of market share to Samsung has forced the leaders at the company to come up with ways of improving its competitive strategy. The first step that Apple is taking to improve its current competitive position is focusing more on improving the existing products compared to coming up with new ones (Gustin, 2012). In the past, Apple invested huge sums of money in research aimed at coming up with new and unique products. Moreover, it would take a lot of years before the company released any new products into the market. However, the company pays more attention to improving its existing products. For example, the iPhone 5 did not have any tangible innovation. Instead, the company improved iPhone 4 by increasing its size among other innovations (Travlos, 2012). In addition, the company is investing in developing its components instead of buying from external suppliers. This will help Apple come up with products with unique features compared to their competitors.                  As noted above, the main competitive strategy of Samsung is building on the weaknesses of its competitors. In this strategy, the company waits for its competitors to come up with a product after which it develops its own with improvements on the one of its competitors. The first step that Samsung is taking to improve its current competitive position is investing more money in research. Compared to Apple Inc, Samsung invests 5.7% of its total revenues in research. This strategy is aimed at ensuring the company comes up with unique products so that it may not be seen as a copycat. The second action that Samsung is taking to improve its competitive advantage is investing heavily in advertising. As noted earlier, the main competitive strategy used by Samsung is flooding the market with different types of products that are targeted at different types of consumers. This is a huge contrast to Apple Inc. which releases few but highly anticipated products. To impr ove its current competitive advantage, Samsung has raised its advertising budget to $401 this year compared to $78 last year. This is $68 more than Apple Inc. Likely moves or strategy shifts that Samsung and Apple Inc will make                In the coming years, both Samsung and Apple Inc. are likely to witness shifts in their competitive strategies. Such changes will mainly be necessitated by heightened competition in the Smartphone market and the dynamic natures of the mobile phone market. As noted earlier, the main competitive strategy of Apple Inc. is developing new and innovative products that blend technology and art (Stein, 2012). The company controls the release of new products into the market unlike its main competitor, Samsung. Although this strategy helped the company rise to dominance of the Smartphone market in the early 2000s, there is need to institute a strategic shift. On top of investing heavily in research and coming up with unique products, Apple is likely to start developing a variety of products to meet the needs of different types of consumers. One of the main weaknesses of the current competitive strategy used by Apple Inc. is that it results in products for the rich in th e society. This makes the company miss on the remaining portion of the cell phone market. Moreover, Apple will also need to invest more in advertising.                  Samsung has overtaken Apple Inc. as the largest Smartphone manufacturer in the world. This growth can be attributed to the company’s competitive strategy of flooding the market with many products that are developed within a short time (Haydn, 2013). Moreover, the products of the company are relatively cheap compared to those of its main competitor, Apple Inc. As pointed out earlier; the other main competitive strategy of Samsung is building on the weaknesses of its competitors. In this strategy, the company waits for its competitors to come up with a product after which it develops its own with improvements on the one of its competitors. However, this strategy may backfire in the future because it will make the company to be seen as a copycat. With this in mind, Samsung is likely to shift its competitive strategy from playing second to its competitors to a dominant force in research as well (Powell, 2001). This means that the company will need to i nvest more in research and come up with products that are revolutionary and game changing. However, measures should be put in place to ensure that products don’t take long before being released into the market. Where each company is most vulnerable                The first major weakness of Samsung as a company is lack of innovation in its products. As noted earlier, Samsung thrives by waiting by for its competitors to come up with a product after which it develops its own with improvements on the one of its competitors. This strategy makes the company vulnerable because in future, people may begin to see it as a copycat. The technology industry is very competitive and customers love companies that develop new technologies compared to those that improve on what is already in the market (Powell, 2001). However, this should not be confused to mean that Samsung does focus on innovation, instead it means that the company is less proactive in coming up with new products. The other vulnerability of Samsung is that serves a mass market compared to Apple Inc. which caters for a niche market. The need to attract a large market forces it to set low prices for its products compared to Apple Inc. and this pricing strategy makes the company vulnerable. Although low pricing has helped Samsung win over a large share of the market, it makes the company vulnerable to being seen as offering low quality product by some customers. Many customers, especially in the United States and other developed countries, usually perceive low priced products as of low quality. Finally, lack of creativity makes the company vulnerable (Haydn, 2013). Many of Samsung’s Smartphones do not have a user friendly interface compared to those of its competitors. This may make consumers in places like the United States demand for lower prices therefore affecting the profitability of the company.               As noted earlier, Apple Inc, Apple Inc. does not target the mass market but rather a niche market. The majority of the company’s products are mainly meant for the affluent in the society. Based on this, the first weakness of Apple Inc. is lack of product diversification. Apple has only one product line, the iPhone. This makes the company vulnerable to saturating its small market. Moreover, the failure by the company to segment its market also makes it vulnerable. Some of the most successful companies in the world have products for every segment of the market including the wealthy and the poor. What competitive moves will provoke the greatest and most effective retaliation by each company?               As pointed out earlier in the paper, both Samsung and Apple Inc. have unique competitive strategies. The competitive strategy used by a company is important because it determines its position in the market as well as its profitability. The first move by Apple Inc. that would provoke the largest retaliation by Samsung is the production low end products. As noted earlier in the paper, Samsung has mainly survived by producing different products for different sections of the market (Powell, 2001). Based on this, any move by Apple Inc. to come up with products for the low end market would provoke retaliation from Samsung. The second move by Apple Inc. that would provoke retaliation by Samsung is lowering the prices of its products. Apple Inc. is famous for producing innovative products that blend technology and art. These products are sold at a premium price.               On the other hand, any move by Samsung to come up with revolutionary and game changing products is likely to provoke retaliation from Apple (Haydn, 2013). As pointed our earlier, Apple Inc. has been depending on this strategy since the time it was founded. Any move by Samsung to invade this territory would attract a serious technological retaliation from Apple Inc. Moreover, Apple survives by serving a niche market. Based on this, any move by Samsung to do away with its mass market strategy and adopt a niche market strategy is likely to provoke a serious retaliation from Apple Inc.               My recommendation on whether the two companies should continue with their current competitive strategies or should modify them             The current competitive strategies used by both Samsung and Apple Inc. have both advantages and disadvantages. As noted earlier in the paper, Apple Inc. was the largest producer of Smartphones in the world before being overtaken by Samsung. Based on this I would suggest that Apple Inc. modifies its current competitive strategy so that it can retain its rightful place in the Smartphone market. First, Apple Inc. should consider conducting market segmentation to ensure that they serve all segments of the market (Mourdoukoutas, 2012). Currently, the company only serves one section of the market. My second recommendation for Apple Inc. is that it should consider instituting product diversification. At the moment, the company offers the iPhone product line only. Finally, the company should invest in producing its own components so that it can shorten the time it takes to develop new products.               Likewise, Samsung should consider modifying its current competitive strategy. This is despite the fact that it has propelled the company to the position of number one Smartphone manufacturer in the world. To begin with, Samsung needs to modify its current strategy and lay more emphasis on innovation. If nothing is done, the current strategy puts the company at risk of being seen as a copycat by customers. Secondly, Samsung should modify its current competitive strategy and revise its prices upwards because some customers associate low prices with low quality. References Erica Olsen (2012). Strategic Planning Kit for Dummies, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Gustin, Sam (2012). Why Apple Is Winning: Innovation, Opportunity and Execution.  TIME.com. TIME, 25 Apr. 2012. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. . Haydn, Shaughnessy (2013). What Makes Samsung Such An Innovative  Company? . Forbes. Retrieved from < http://www.forbes.com/sites/haydnshaughnessy/2013/03/07/why-is-samsung-such-an-innovative-company/ > .Web Mourdoukoutas, Panos (2012). Can Microsoft Adopt Apple’s Business Model?  Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 10 Oct. 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. . Powell, Thomas C. (2001). Competitive advantage: logical and philosophical considerations. Strategic Management Journal 22 (9): 875–888 Stein, Scott (2012). IPhone 5 Review: Finally, the IPhone We’ve Always Wanted.†Ã‚  CNET. CNET, 4 Oct. 2012. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. . Travlos, Darcy (2012). Apple: Product Commoditization?  Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 15 May 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. . Source document

Monday, January 6, 2020

Women During The 20th Century - 1548 Words

Women are a large part of our society. They always have been. Without women none of us would be here right now. In the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries women did not really get to work much. A woman s job was typically to have and take care of the children. Mother was the main title that a woman could have. Then WWI started, and all of the men went off to fight in the war. With all of the men off fighting, there was no one left to to work in the factories. All of the wives and mothers, and women left at home took over the jobs in the factories. Women working in the factories was almost unheard of before this time. Of course once the war ended and all of the men came back, they took the jobs again. By the end of WWII, all of the women were out of a job again, but they had now know what working was like. This was not in every country, most countries did not lose enough men to the army and could still work with the ones they had. The most important countries that let the women into their workforce was Britain and Germany. The countries that did lose their men to the war and needed the women in the factories prospered. European countries that allowed women to enter the workforce enjoyed both short term and long term benefits. They experienced some short term benefits like a surge of productivity in their military. Those countries also experience some much needed long term benefits, like a huge step forward for women’s rights and labor laws. Before the war started,Show MoreRelatedWomen During The 20th Century1840 Words   |  8 PagesThe government and ladinos had certain designs upon the market place and who ought to control it, and Mayan women fought them on it on a daily basis in order to protect their own interests and survival. 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